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WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Desert TreesContent:
- Ziziphus mauritiana – a valuable tree for arid and semi-arid lands
- FRUIT TREES IN SEMI-ARID GAMBIA (Willem Van Cotthem)
- Arid Orchard Plant List
- Dragon fruit: Is it the next big thing in Indian horticulture
- Dryland fruit crops for scarcity zone.
- Tree Directory
- Apple Tree and Fruit Responses to Early Termination of Irrigation in a Semi-arid Environment
- A Guide to Top-Working Fruit Trees in Arid Regions (Paperback)
- What Induces Central Australian Arid Zone Trees and Shrubs to Flower and Fruit?
Ziziphus mauritiana – a valuable tree for arid and semi-arid lands
The use of Ziziphus mauritiana in India can be traced back to as early as 1, BC. This species which is also known as ber, Indian jujube, Indian plum, or desert apple, is an ever-green, medium-sized, thorny tree, whose greatest quality is its ability to thrive and produce fruits in arid or semi-arid regions. Ber belongs to the Rhamnaceae family.
Of the well-known species of the genus Ziziphus , ber Z. Extensive research on ber was first undertaken in India. Research on this species has expanded to Israel, Malawi, Senegal, and Zimbabwe. Botany Ber is a medium sized tree that grows vigorously and has a rapidly developing taproot, a necessary adaptation to drought conditions. The species varies widely in height, from a shrub 1.
Ber tree may be erect or wide-spreading, with gracefully drooping thorny branches. The leaves are alternate, ovate or oblong elliptic, with 3 veins at the base, and are usually about 2. The flowers are yellow, 5-petalled and are usually in twos and threes in the leaf axils. This quick growing tree starts producing fruits within three years. It will not set fruit by self-pollination. Fruits vary in shape and size. They can be round, oval or oblong; large, medium or small. Most are round to oval.
Size can be as small as 1. Ber fruits are first green, turning yellow as they ripen. The ripe fruit is sweet and sour in taste. Both flesh texture and taste are reminiscent of apples. Ecology Commercial cultivation of ber usually extends up to 1, m. Beyond this elevation trees do not perform well and cultivation becomes less economical.
However, this hardy fruit tree does not tolerate frost well. Native to the tropical and sub-tropical regions, ber can grow where annual rainfall ranges from to 2, mm, but is more widespread in areas with an annual rainfall of to mm. It is known for its ability to withstand adverse conditions, such as salinity, drought and waterlogging.
Studies report that this species flourishes in alkaline soils with a pH as high as 9. However, deep sandy loam to loamy soils with neutral or slightly alkaline pH are considered optimum for growth. Distribution Early studies indicate that the center of origin of ber is Central Asia. This species is indigenous to north Africa; from Afghanistan through north India to southern China; Malaysia; and Queensland in Australia. Uses Fruits.
Ber fruits are very nutritious and are usually eaten fresh. Relatively unknown, this fruit is a rich source of vitamin C. It is second only to guava and much higher than citrus or apples.
Fruits are also eaten in other forms, such as dried, candied, pickled, as juice, or as ber butter. In Malawi, dried fruit is used to make a potent distilled alcoholic beverage. In parts of India and north Africa, the leaves of ber are used as nutritious fodder for sheep and goats.
Analysis of the chemicals constituents on a dry weight basis indicate the leaves containIn India, the leaves are also gathered as food for silkworms GuptaBer timber is hard—with a specific gravity of 0. It is most often used to make agricultural implements. The branches are used as framework in house construction. Ber makes good charcoal with a heat content of almost 4, kcal per kg. In addition, this species is used as firewood in many areas.
Other uses. This thorny tree makes good live fencing and is an excellent agroforestry tree to use in hedges. In India, ber trees are a host for the lac insects Kerria lacca, which are found on the leaves and makes an orange-red resinous substance. The purified resin makes a shellac used to produce sealing wax and vanish. High quality ber shellac is used in fine lacquer work.
Silviculture Natural reproduction is through seed, stump, root suckers and coppice. Scientists in India have standardized propaga-tion techniques for ber establishment. Budding is the easiest method of vegetative propagation used for improved culti-vars.Different types of budding techniques have been utilized with ring-budding and shield-budding being the most successful.
Wild varieties of ber are usually used as the root-stock. The most common being Z. Seedlings to be used as rootstock can be raised from seed. Several studies indicate that germination can be improved by soaking seeds in sulfuric acid.
Germination time can also be shortened to 7 days by carefully cracking the endocarp. Ber seedlings do not tolerate transplanting, therefore the best al-ternatives are to sow the seeds directly in the field or to use polythene tubes placed in the nursery bed.
Seedlings are ready for budding in 3 to 4 months. In addition, seedlings from the wild cultivars can be converted into improved culti-vars by top-working and grafting. Nurseries are used for large scale seedling multiplication and graft production. Spacing and fertilizer requirements. For orchard estab-lishment recommended spacing is 7 x 7 m or 8 x 8 m.
The wider spacing is preferred in areas with high rainfall where canopy development is vigorous. Many studies in India recommend the application of both farmyard manure and com-mercial fertilizers to maximum production. In Africa, the recommended fertilizer application is 20 to kg N, to kg P, and 20 to 50 kg K per hectare. Fruit production begins in the 4th year with full production in the 10th to 12th year von MaydellTraining and pruning.
It is essential to train ber trees during the first 2 to 3 years to build a strong frame. Otherwise, these trees have a tendency to grow horizontally and downwards. If untrained, trees develop into a spreading bushy form with long slender branches.
Regular pruning induces sufficient new growth to produce a good fruit crop annually. Pruning should occur when plants are dormant. Limitations Pests and diseases. The most serious pest of ber are the fruit flies, Carpomyia vesuviana and C.
Susceptibility generally differs by cultivar. Control of the pests can be attained by regular spraying of insecticides. Powdery mildew is the most impor-tant disease and results in premature defoliation and fruit drop. The disease can be effectively controlled by using chemicals.
Bal, J. Ber Varieties. New Delhi. Gupta, R. Multipurpose trees for Agroforestry and Wasteland Utilization. Jawanda, J. The ber, highly paying and rich in value. Indian Horticulture:The Ber — A highly remunerative fruit crop.
Farmer and Parliament:Trees and shrubs for the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. Federal Republic of Germany. Nerd, A. Introduction and domestication of rare fruits and nuts for desert areas.
In: J. Janick and J. Simon eds , Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland Oregon. Pareek, O. Fruit trees for arid and semi-arid lands.
FRUIT TREES IN SEMI-ARID GAMBIA (Willem Van Cotthem)
The use of Ziziphus mauritiana in India can be traced back to as early as 1, BC. This species which is also known as ber, Indian jujube, Indian plum, or desert apple, is an ever-green, medium-sized, thorny tree, whose greatest quality is its ability to thrive and produce fruits in arid or semi-arid regions. Ber belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. Of the well-known species of the genus Ziziphus , ber Z. Extensive research on ber was first undertaken in India. Research on this species has expanded to Israel, Malawi, Senegal, and Zimbabwe. Botany Ber is a medium sized tree that grows vigorously and has a rapidly developing taproot, a necessary adaptation to drought conditions.
Here, three different fruit tree/wheat (jujube/wheat, This region has a typical arid climate, and the soil type is arenosol.
Arid Orchard Plant List
Australian Journal of Botany 41 3 - Published:We developed two sets of regression models for flowering and fruiting of arid zone trees and shrubs, based on i rainfall in the current and preceding seasons and ii soil moisture lagged over varying time periods combined with mean maximum temperature and daylength in the month prior to phenological observations. Using up to 4 years of flowering and fruiting records, we found that both approaches identified responses matching those reported in two other long-term data sets or in the literature, for some species but not for all. The second approach appeared to provide better correlations than the first but we were unable to predict flowering and fruiting effectively. Flowering and fruiting of central Australian trees and shrubs were least in late summer, creating potential limitations on animal populations dependent on them for food. With better predictive capabilities, there is some scope for managing the trees and shrubs for particular purposes. However, very long-term phenological records are needed to improve predictions.
Dragon fruit: Is it the next big thing in Indian horticulture
Choosing plants for your climate is the easiest way to grow healthy trees, that readily produce an abundance of delicious fruit. Plant breeding, grafting and careful selection have produced cultivars and varieties that will tolerate a wider range of climatic conditions than the original species fruits of old. However, some fruits just grow better in some areas then they do in others. To choose the right tree for your climate, follow these simple tips and tricks. This may seem simple but until you start growing your own fruit and vegetables, the subtle climatic differences in your garden can be easily overlooked.
Tavakoli, A. Growing fruit trees with rainwater harvesting in arid environments: the case of almond in Northwest Iran.
Dryland fruit crops for scarcity zone.
All aspects of top working fruit trees are dealt with in this handy volume written by an expert on the subject. Thoroughly recommended reading for the budding home gardener, it contains a wealth of information forming a complete how-to guide. Illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings. This book contains classic material dating back to the s and before. The content has been carefully selected for its interest and relevance to a modern audience. Convert currency.
In this regard, hydrogel represents a promising approach in the citrus industry, since it improves growth, yield, andfruit quality under abiotic stress. The experimental farm location belongs to arid and semi-arid lands. Citrus is one of the most significant fruit trees in the world, which ranks the third place among fruit trees after grapevines and apples. Such species also is planted in more than seven million hectares worldwide FAO,In Egypt, citrus is the largest horticultural industry as its acreage, production, and exportation potentialities are concerned. The harvested area is increased rapidly from one year to another to reach about ha.
technology for micropropagation of some arid region fruit trees Citrus and Ficusa deciduous trees are belonging to rutaceae and.
Apple Tree and Fruit Responses to Early Termination of Irrigation in a Semi-arid Environment
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A Guide to Top-Working Fruit Trees in Arid Regions (Paperback)
The agroclimate of Odisha state is very favourable for different long and short duration fruits. Lime, Litchi are most important crops. Similarly, fruits like Banana, Papaya and Pineapple are the prominent short duration fruit crops. The distribution of these crops in different parts of Odisha is based on specific agroclimatic requirement of the crop. Coconut : Odisha enjoys kms. This traditional area is predominant of tall varieties of coconut which thrive for more than years and start fruiting from 4th to 8th year depending on its maintenance.
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What Induces Central Australian Arid Zone Trees and Shrubs to Flower and Fruit?
There are many different fruiting trees that are perfectly suited for dryer climates. Kei apple trees are originally from South Africa and grow best in zones 9 throughThese apples have a bit more of an acidic taste, but it is still incredibly pleasant. It grows well in full sun or partial shade. Have you ever had a Jujube? They are in some ways similar to figs but grow to about the same size as an apple.
Before planting a tree there are a few considerations to keep in mind. Some fruit trees are easier to grow in the desert than others. Some may need a lot more in terms of microclimate, specific nutrition and soil.